《Journal of Biological Chemistry》 16:14508-14515 （2011）
An Early Response Transcription Factor, Egr-1, Enhances Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes with Chronic Hyperinsulinism
Shen, N.; Yu, X.; Pan, F.-Y.; Gao, X.; Xue, B.; Li, C.-J.
One of the most important characteristics of type 2 diabetes is insulin resistance, during which the patients normally experienced hyperinsulinism stress that would alter insulin signal transduction in insulin target tissues.Wehave previously found that early growth responsive gene-1 (Egr-1), a zinc finger transcription factor, is highly expressed in db/db mice and in the fat tissue of individuals with type 2 diabetes. In this report, we found that chronic exposure to hyperinsulinism caused persistent Erk/MAPK activity in adipocytes and enhanced insulin resistance in an Egr-1-dependent manner. An elevation in Egr-1 augmented Erk1/2 activation via geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS). Egr-1-promoted GGPPS transcription increased Ras prenylation and caused Erk1/2 activation. The sustained activation of Erk1/2 resulted in the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 at Serine 612. Phosphorylation at this site impaired insulin signaling in adipocytes and reduced glucose uptake. The loss of Egr-1 function, knockdown of GGPPS, or inhibition of Erk1/2 activity in insulin-resistant adipocytes restored insulin receptor substrate-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and increased insulin sensitivity. Our results suggest a new mechanism by which the Egr-1/GGPPS/Erk1/2 pathway is responsible for insulin resistance during hyperinsulinism. This pathway provides a new therapeutic target for increasing insulin sensitivity: inhibiting the function of Egr-1.